When I was working in the school district office, we spent significant time putting together a plan that would meet the needs of a range of learners. Where there were almost an endless number of resources from which to choose for Reading, there were very few for Math. We looked at many options but struggled to put together anything as comprehensive as what we could offer for Reading. It was during this struggle that I was introduced to the work of Kathy Richardson, who is one of the leading math educators in the country. As I studied Kathy’s work, I came to understand that the very foundational concepts of number—counting, for example—were much more complex than I had given them credit for. As I became familiar with the Critical Learning Phases that Kathy identified, I realized just how important it is for students to build their conceptual understanding of number relationships.

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